Introduction

Women participation in politics has always been an issue from ancient times to modern day politics. Conventionally, they have been playing second-fiddle to their male counterparts for no fault of theirs. Milbrath and Goel observed, it is a tradition in almost all societies that governance and policymaking is the fiefdom of men. Even the most advanced nation, one of the oldest democracies of the world namely United States of America recognised their right to vote after lot of struggle. The reason for the same is not very hard to fathom despite the advances made in almost every field.

The phrase ‘political participation’ has a very wide meaning. It not merely translates to the ‘Right to vote’ but is related to involvement in decision making process, political activism and political consciousness. As against this basic notion of democracy, what is normally observed is that women are excluded from different walks of life, more visibly in politics; basing it on patriarchal reasoning that women are intellectually inferior to men.

Global Data

According to UN Women, there are just 20 countries across the globe with a woman Head of State/Government.

  • Rwanda tops the list with the highest number of women parliamentarians worldwide, where, women have won 61.3 per cent of seats in the lower house.
  • Only 24.3 per cent of all national parliamentarians were women as of February 2019, a slow increase from 11.3 per cent in 1995
  • Wide variations remain in the average percentages of women parliamentarians in different region. Nordic countries, 42.5 per cent; Americas, 30.6 per cent; Europe including Nordic countries, 28.6 per cent; Europe excluding Nordic countries, 27.2 per cent; Sub-Saharan Africa, 23.9 per cent; Asia, 19.8 per cent; Arab States, 19 per cent; and the Pacific, 16.3 per cent.
  • India ties with Hungary at a derisory hundred and forty eightieth (148th) rank with 12.6 per cent.

The United Nations (UN) observes that women constitute World’s Largest Excluded Category. In any political system, right from the developed to the developing countries, presence of women is very low compared to men. In many countries women had to wage long battles to get the right to vote. Today the percentage of women voters might have increased but their political participation is still very low as compared to men and therefore women are unable to get an equal share in organisation that requires decision making politics at every level of its functioning.

Indian Scenario

In ancient India reverence was given to women as mother’s image, a symbol of life. In the Vedic era, women enjoyed considerable freedom as far as political, social and educational activities were concerned, thereby, enjoying status and prestige in society.

The medieval period witnessed a gradual decline in the position and status of women in India. They were considered weak and it was the responsibility of men to protect them.

During this period, there emerged social evils like female infanticide, child marriage and the practice of sati began in society. Such atrocious practices were responsible for the deterioration of women to a great extent both in the family and society.

Constitutional Provisions

The foundation of political participation of women was laid down during the National Movement, Government of India took to constitutional reforms and legal measures to improve the condition of women in India but it doesn’t show effectively at ground level.

Article 14 guarantees, equality before law and equal protection of law within the territory of India.

Article 15 prohibits discrimination on the basis of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth. It is a guarantee against every form of discrimination.

Article 16 guarantees equality of opportunity to all citizens in matter relating to employment.

Article 39(a) right to an adequate means of livelihood for all citizens & Article 39(b) is about equal pay for equal work for both men and women.

Article 42 is about human condition of work and maternity leave as well as 73rd & 74th constitutional amendment and reservation Bill 33.33% reservation for women.

Its seventy years and we are far from fulfilling the solemn vow mentioned in the Preamble of our Constitution: JUSTICE, social, economic and political

              EQUALITY, of status and opportunity

Conclusion

Reservation of seats alone can never result in remarkable improvement in the percentage representation of women in politics. While novel ideas towards progress are indeed welcome, what we need more is effective implementation of the existing norms and provisions. Role of media has been instrumental in promoting the cause of Women Equality and their presence in parliament.

To conclude one can say that the role of Indian women in the nation building process of India has been as important as the men. They have played a crucial role in every possible manner be it politics, social work, welfare of the downtrodden, supporting a cause, running business, handling administrative, literature etc..

Author: Malahat Jahan

©Copyright @Author

Author

11 Comments

  1. I am just writing to make you know of the helpful discovery my friend’s daughter undergone using your site. She figured out so many details, including what it is like to have an excellent helping style to make the mediocre ones really easily comprehend a variety of advanced topics. You truly exceeded readers’ expectations. Thanks for delivering such helpful, dependable, educational not to mention cool guidance on the topic to Janet.

  2. I would like to get across my passion for your kind-heartedness for individuals that really need assistance with this particular content. Your personal commitment to getting the solution across was extraordinarily practical and has in most cases encouraged men and women much like me to attain their ambitions. This informative help denotes so much a person like me and substantially more to my office colleagues. Many thanks; from everyone of us.

  3. Thank you so much for providing individuals with an extremely breathtaking chance to discover important secrets from here. It’s always very useful plus stuffed with fun for me and my office fellow workers to visit your web site more than 3 times weekly to read through the new secrets you have. And lastly, we are usually amazed with all the beautiful guidelines served by you. Some 2 points on this page are certainly the most suitable I’ve had.

  4. A lot of thanks for all your valuable hard work on this site. My aunt takes pleasure in carrying out research and it’s obvious why. My partner and i know all regarding the dynamic means you offer useful secrets on the web blog and therefore increase contribution from other ones on this matter and our child is now starting to learn a whole lot. Have fun with the rest of the year. You’re conducting a great job.

  5. I as well as my friends came looking through the nice guidelines found on your web page and so quickly I had a horrible suspicion I never expressed respect to you for those tips. These guys had been warmed to read through them and have surely been having fun with those things. Appreciation for simply being very thoughtful and then for picking out this kind of fantastic useful guides most people are really wanting to know about. My very own sincere apologies for not expressing appreciation to earlier.

  6. I precisely desired to thank you so much yet again. I do not know what I would have made to happen in the absence of these information documented by you over my field. It absolutely was an absolute daunting crisis for me personally, nevertheless being able to see a specialized strategy you managed the issue made me to jump for contentment. I’m happier for your support and even believe you find out what a powerful job that you’re accomplishing teaching the others thru a web site. More than likely you’ve never got to know all of us.

  7. Thanks for all of your hard work on this web page. My mum takes pleasure in doing investigations and it’s obvious why. My partner and i know all of the compelling tactic you provide vital thoughts through the blog and as well recommend contribution from other individuals on this subject so our own girl is in fact learning a great deal. Take pleasure in the rest of the new year. You’re the one doing a fantastic job.

  8. I together with my guys came taking note of the nice secrets and techniques from your web blog then suddenly I had a terrible feeling I never thanked the blog owner for those tips. All of the young boys ended up totally happy to read through them and already have unquestionably been making the most of them. Thanks for indeed being indeed considerate as well as for finding variety of perfect subjects millions of individuals are really desirous to be informed on. My sincere regret for not expressing gratitude to earlier.

  9. I really wanted to jot down a word to express gratitude to you for all the fabulous tips and tricks you are giving out at this website. My particularly long internet lookup has finally been rewarded with reasonable know-how to share with my classmates and friends. I would admit that most of us readers are very much endowed to be in a really good website with so many brilliant individuals with valuable points. I feel somewhat happy to have seen your entire weblog and look forward to plenty of more enjoyable minutes reading here. Thank you once again for everything.

  10. I must show some appreciation to the writer for bailing me out of this setting. After surfing through the online world and seeing principles which were not powerful, I thought my entire life was well over. Being alive minus the strategies to the problems you’ve sorted out as a result of your entire post is a serious case, and those which could have in a negative way affected my entire career if I had not noticed the blog. Your good mastery and kindness in handling the whole thing was excellent. I don’t know what I would’ve done if I had not come across such a step like this. It’s possible to at this point look ahead to my future. Thanks a lot so much for this impressive and effective guide. I will not think twice to propose the blog to anybody who needs to have counselling about this matter.

  11. I would like to convey my gratitude for your kind-heartedness in support of men and women that must have help with this important subject matter. Your real commitment to passing the solution around appears to be particularly practical and have in most cases helped individuals just like me to get to their aims. Your useful key points entails a whole lot a person like me and even further to my fellow workers. Regards; from everyone of us.

Write A Comment